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Urban density is one of the most discussed concepts in the history of urban design and city planning. It is the first out of ten principles for sustainable urban transport, which are summarised in our new PREZI based on the approach of “avoid-shift-improve”. During the 19th century urban density was synonymous with narrow, unhygienic housing and living conditions. In the 1930s modernists accused it of promoting social and political unrest. Today, the term urbanity connotes to civic ideals such as smooth and literate and socially capable. From the sixties onwards these ideals became more dominant in public discussion. In 1989 an influential study by Newman and Kenworthy compared 32 cities across the world. The main finding that denser cities have lower car use than sprawling cities is largely accepted by planners today. Planning dense, walkable cities became a new paradigm in city planning: Short distances encourage social inclusion and promote…

Until 2017 Beijing is going to replace 80 per cent of its bus fleet to make its public transport system more environmentally friendly. Wang Hao of Beijing’s Commission of Transport stated on 13th December 2013 that it was their aim “to continuously reduce automobile emissions in downtown areas of the capital, while easing traffic congestion”. Consequently the Commission not only plans to replace old buses, but also pledged to further develop bus routes and achieve a modal shift of commuters from private cars to public transport. Beijing plans to reduce its nitrogen dioxide emissions by 50 percent and particulate matter by 60 percent during the target period. To reach the goal, 13,825 buses shall be replaced by 4,058 electrically powered and 7,185 natural gas buses. A large share of electrically powered buses is planned to be trolleybuses. Xu Kangming of Beijing Public Transport Holding pointed out, that trolley buses had…

Using so called green tyres can save up to 7% energy and therefore reduce the environmental impact and cut operation cost, as was explained at the Sino-German Conference on Application of Green Tyres in Road Transport. The conference was hosted by GIZ jointly with the Department of Road Transport of Ministry of Transport as a side event of the second biggest logistics fare in the world, the 15th Shenzhen International Logistics Fare. Being open to everyone, officials as well as businessmen attended the conference. With the Tyre Labelling Regulation 1222/2009 the EU has pointed out a way towards more energy saving tyres. As Brigitta Worringen of the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development (BMVBS) explained, it enables customers to understand tyre’s safety qualities, fuel efficiency and noise levels at a glance. But the conference was going beyond just saving energy while driving. Xu Xioadan of the Chinese…

Not only in China but in all developing countries, the transport sectors share of greenhouse gas emission is growing rapidly. Therefore, this year’s Transport Day, a side event to COP 19 in Warsaw, Poland on 17th November 2013, aims to bring together the expert communities from both, the climate and the transport sector. With a promotion of an integration of transport in climate change policy making, the sector can be placed more prominent in the international debate. The event is organised by the Bridging the Gap Initiative (BtG) and the Partnership on Sustainable, Low Carbon Transport (SLoCaT). Daniel Bongardt of GIZ China is in charge of coordinating the stream of break-out sessions on Ensuring effective transport – Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). Before Transport Day, GIZ TRANSfer project will host an expert workshop Towards Roadmaps for MRV of Transport NAMAs on 15th November 2013. The workshop will be the kick-off…

On days of continuous and serious air pollution, 80 percent of public vehicles and half of private cars will be banned from Beijing’s roads, the city’s government said on Thursday according to a report of China Daily. When serious air pollution (AQI above 300) is expected to linger for three or more days, bans are to be alternately applied to cars with either odd or even license numbers. On those days, public transportation services will extend their service hours by 30 minutes. The situation is comparable to the seventies in Germany, when the government needed to release strict limiting values for industry and traffic emissions to combat smog and pollution. Leading to the emission act of 1973, the later chancellor of Germany Willy Brandt had requested in a speech in 1962 already that the sky above the Ruhr Region needed to get blue again. On January 18th, 1985, the first…

Gaining plausible knowledge on travel demand data is crucial factor for the calculation of transportation-related energy consumption and GHG emissions. However, the level of understanding of travel demand related issues in China is relatively limited due to lack of data and the relatively short motorization history of China. Moreover, projections of future vehicle use in China are also not adequately addressed. Therefore, GIZ organised a Technical Workshop on Travel Demand in China – Past trends and future development that aimed to gain expert inputs on the current status as well as forecasts of the future travel demand of China’s transport sector on a national level. It provided in-depth insights into the issue of travel demand data and methodologies in China. Chinese and international experts discussed impact factors and their effects on future travel demand, presented existing research activities and identified necessary tasks for the future. Moreover, they outlined challenges related…

Cycling has positive impacts on the environment and the climate, as a flexible transport mode it can help to tackle many current and future transport problems and raise the quality of life in cities and people’s health. Therefore, the German Federal Government assigns great importance to the establishment of cycling as part of a modern transport system in urban and rural areas. In 1998 the Federal Ministry of Transportation, Building and Urban Development (BMVBS) decided to introduce a first capacity building programme on cycling and take joint action with German federal states to start a revival of cycling in German cities: the idea of the National Cycling Plan was born. This plan, which focused on capacity building in cities (based on a prior needs assessment), turned out to be an enormous success in the years 2000 and beyond. More than a hundred projects were realised, with a spectrum ranging from…

Quantification of transport related emissions is one of the key requirements in the effort to control GHG-emissions and pollutants in any form. The report GHG Reporting and Inventorying in Germany – Assessing transport related emissions  provides an overview on the institutionalisation of inventory planning, preparation and management at the national level in Germany. It also includes a general description of the data and methods used for the calculation of transport related emissions in the national inventory. The report was developed by the IFEU Institute. Download the full report: “GHG Reporting and Inventorying in Germany (EN)” “GHG Reporting and Inventorying in Germany (CN)” GIZ China aims to assist their Chinese partners in the design and implementation of measures, strategies and standards for climate change mitigation, energy efficiency and environmental protection in China’s transport sector. Quantifying transport related emissions underlies many of these efforts and is therefore a focus of their work…

China, one of the most rapidly growing countries in the world, is experiencing rapid and substantial growth in economic and motorized mobility. Transport related energy consumption and pollution problems are poised to soar further. In 2008, consumption of fossil fuels in the transport sector accounted for 36% of national total fossil fuel consumption. A fundamental requirement in the effort to control GHG-emissions and pollutants in any form is to quantify the emissions being released. A robust approach to measure energy savings and emission reductions in the end of the designed schedule is an essential element in reviewing the performance. A reliable and transparent model should be applied to track the emission reductions, but so far this kind of model is not publicly available in China. Download the full report: “Data Availability for Measuring and Reporting Transport related GHG Emissions in Chinese Cities” The report on “Data Availability for Measuring and…

The World Environment News reported on an agreement regarding joint efforts to cut carbon output between China and the United States. They agreed to five initiatives to cut carbon output from the largest sources, including heavy duty vehicles, manufacturing and coal-fired plants. China and the United States are the world’s top emitters of greenhouse gases. Therefore the American-Chinese Working Group on Climate Change, implemented in April 2013, is supposed to work with industry and non-governmental groups to develop plans “to carry out the measures aimed at fighting climate change and cutting pollution”[1] until autumn this year. In order to reduce emissions, the initiative focuses on five pillars:[2] Reducing emissions from heavy-duty and other vehicles Increasing energy efficiency in buildings, industry, and transport Improving greenhouse gas data collection and management Increasing carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) Promoting smart grids China, one of the most rapidly growing countries in the world,…