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Within the framework of the project “Mobility and Fuels Strategy (MFS) as a Contribution to the Transport Transition in China – Pilot in the Jing-Jin-Ji Region”, Mr. Ralf Fiedler from the Fraunhofer Center for Maritime Logistics and Services (CML) travelled to China from 21 to 24 August 2018. The goal of his visit was to work with the Tianjin Research Institute for Water Transport Engineering (TIWTE) under the Chinese Ministry of Transport (MOT) on identifying suitable project topics for the ongoing Chinese-German MFS cooperation in the field of green port development. In the following months, TIWTE, Fraunhofer CML and GIZ in China will carry out three joint studies that are dealing with the analysis and evaluation of energy efficiency in automatic container terminals, the optimization and promotion policies of shore-to-ship power supply systems as well as concepts for conversion towards green ports. In order to further facilitate the exchange between…

With rapid economic development and accelerated urbanization, Chinese cities are experiencing a substantial growth in vehicle population and motorized mobility. Yet, vehicle ownership rates are still a fraction of those in developed countries—118 motor vehicles per 1,000 persons in 2015 compared to 748 per 1,000 persons in Germany. Against this background, we expect continued growth of vehicle demand in China, especially in tier 3 and tier 4 cities. The rapidly growing number of motorized vehicles puts high pressure on the cities’ transport systems, while greenhouse gas emissions and local air pollutants, as well as external costs of traffic congestion, are increasing. Neither the provision of additional road infrastructure nor the development of new car technologies can overcome all these challenges. A sustainable solution to the city’s traffic problems can only be achieved by implementing travel demand management (TDM) strategies. Particularly parking management as one of the most effective TDM policies…

The development of electric vehicles (EVs, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs)) could enhance fuel diversity and utilise renewable energy, which is considered a promising, long-term solution to reduce high dependence on fossil fuels and alleviate climate change impacts from a global perspective. In addition, EV deployment is considered capable of improving urban air quality by reducing on-road emissions for traffic-populated areas. Chinese policymakers are aware of the potential environmental benefits of EVs in lessening urban atmospheric pollution. Decade-long discussions regarding whether fleet electrification can deliver actual environmental benefits on a regional scale have been heated during recent years. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methods were applied to determine the well-to-wheels (WTW) reduction benefits of energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants through electro-mobility. During the initial phase of the project, the full life cycle energy consumption and emissions of CO2 and major air…

As a major global economic driving force, the transport sector –and in particular the automotive sector– has provided employment and shaped technological progress over the course of a century. This is true for Germany as much as it is for China. Daunting climate and environmental concerns have cast a large shadow on this development. The tangible negative impacts of transport such as air pollution, accidents, noise and congestion are more than a nuisance to residents living, working or visiting in Chinas’ megacities, along Chinas’ coastlines and waterways. A less perceptible, yet significant impact is the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from internal combustion engines burning fossil fuels. The associated negative social, environmental and climatic impacts pose a dilemma for policy makers worldwide. Energy security, climate protection and air quality have to be taken into account as much as economic efficiency, growth and acceptance. Accordingly, the purpose of practical transport policy…

To tap into the experience of European countries in respect to the most effective complementary policies, GIZ and the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) conducted a study to investigate incentives for electric vehicles (EVs) in the five largest EV markets in Europe, namely Germany, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands and Norway. They accounted for 80% of all European EV registrations in 2014. The analysis focuses on fiscal and non-fiscal incentives at the national level and uses ten case studies of European cities and regions to investigate how local governments can complement national incentives. The report was funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) and has been drafted to support the China Electric Vehicles 100 Members known as China EV100, which is a high-level associated organisation dedicated to advancing research, market development, and deployment of electric vehicles in China. BMUB works…

In order to enable environmental authorities in Chinese cities to generate a regular emissions inventory of the transport sector, GIZ China published the guide “Monitoring Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Transport Activities in Chinese Cities – A Step-by-Step Guide to Data Collection”. The report was developed as an output for the TRANSfer project, which is implemented by GIZ and financed by the International Climate Initiative of the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conversation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB). The guide provides a detailed approach for setting-up an emission monitoring system for urban passenger transport. Sensitive to both, the local traffic situations and data availability, the guide outlines three different approaches to calculate transport activities: The basic approach: Initial start on GHG monitoring. Calculations are mainly based on non-local default values but already allow a reasonable understanding of the sector; The advanced approach: Calculations are done with locally specific parameters…

From the emergence of Chinese carsharing services in 2009 until today, more than 330,000 people signed up for a carsharing membership in China – equivalent to almost one third of the total number of carsharing members in Germany, one of the world’s largest carsharing markets. Considering that carsharing in China is still at an embryonic stage, its dynamic development indicates potential for further growth. Nevertheless, public and political awareness of carsharing are still low, its legal conditions are unclear and uncertainties related to the feasibility of large-scale applications remain. In this context the Research Institute of Highway (RIOH) with the support of GIZ carried out a study on the legal conditions for carsharing services in China. The results of the study were presented at the one day workshop “Feasibility of Carsharing Concepts in China: Analysis of the Political and Legal Framework” on 28 January 2016, organised in a round table…

Monetary purchasing subsidies, super credits, tax exemptions and local incentives for industry and consumers: China is sparing no efforts in its drive towards market expansion for e-mobility. The motives of China’s industrial policy are straightforward, yet environmental protection as a driver is not equally unambiguous. Prevalent coal-fired electricity production is sparking doubts whether an electrification of motorised individual mobility has a positive impact on the climate. A Sino-German cooperation project addresses these issues by assessing the environmental impact of electric vehicles in China. As an important economic driver in China, the automotive sector is a significant provider of employment and shapes technological innovation. It has significantly contributed to China’s unprecedented economic growth over the past decades. Conversely, daunting climate and environmental concerns have cast a shadow on this development. Air pollution, noise, accidents, congestion – the list of very tangible, negative external effects of transport is long. Less perceptible, but…

In response to China’s rapidly increasing vehicle population, the first carsharing operators are entering the Chinese market to complement the range of alternatives to car ownership. From the emergence of such services in 2009 until today, more than 330,000 people signed up for a carsharing membership in China – equivalent to almost one third of the total number of carsharing members in Germany, one of the world’s largest carsharing markets. Considering that carsharing in China is still in an embryonic stage, its dynamic development indicates potential for further growth. Nevertheless, public and political awareness of carsharing is low, and uncertainties related to the feasibility of large-scale applications remain. The Sino-German Cooperation Project on Electro-Mobility and Climate Protection published the article “Fewer cars, more mobility: Can carsharing work in China?” in the technical journal “International Transportation”. Find the full article (p. 26-29) in issue 1, May 2015, available as free download…

With the Clean Air Action Plan of 2013 Beijing started the discussion on introducing congestion charging to reduce traffic volume, relieve congestion and subsequently transport related air pollution. With the support of GIZ, the Beijing Transportation Research Centre modelled the impact of different congestion charging policy schemes. While Beijing is still discussing the feasibility of congestion charging, few prominent cities around the world have implemented it. Stockholm, London, Singapore, Milan are some of the cities that are currently operating a congestion charging scheme as an economic instrument to reduce congestion and its detrimental effects. Forty years after its first implementation, congestion charging remains a highly underused policy, even if implemented policies have shown to be highly successful. The international experts involved in assessing the congestion charging policy for Beijing have summarised their experience with congestion charging in a policy guide. The guide attempts to address the two main reasons why…