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China Transport Sector Policy Briefing – October 2018 The October edition of our China Transport Sector Policy Briefing is here! The Sustainable Mobility Team at GIZ in China provides you with a monthly summary of new important policies in China’s transport sector. Please click here to download: China Transport Sector Policy Briefing October 2018  In October, the Three-Year Plan on the Restructuring of the Transport Sector has set its focus on the shift from road to rail and waterway, while provincial and municipal policies targeted the promotion of new energy industries and new energy vehicles (NEVs). Safety has received prioritization in Beijing with a series of regulations for light electric vehicles. Restructuring of the transport sector, new energy and NEV promotion at provincial and municipal level, light electric vehicle regulations in Beijing This month another major plan for the transport sector has been released by the State Council. The Three-Year Plan…

With rapid economic development and accelerated urbanization, Chinese cities are experiencing a substantial growth in vehicle population and motorized mobility. Yet, vehicle ownership rates are still a fraction of those in developed countries—118 motor vehicles per 1,000 persons in 2015 compared to 748 per 1,000 persons in Germany. Against this background, we expect continued growth of vehicle demand in China, especially in tier 3 and tier 4 cities. The rapidly growing number of motorized vehicles puts high pressure on the cities’ transport systems, while greenhouse gas emissions and local air pollutants, as well as external costs of traffic congestion, are increasing. Neither the provision of additional road infrastructure nor the development of new car technologies can overcome all these challenges. A sustainable solution to the city’s traffic problems can only be achieved by implementing travel demand management (TDM) strategies. Particularly parking management as one of the most effective TDM policies…

Cities in China are continuing to suffer from heavy and often slow traffic. According to China Daily, Jinan, Beijing and Harbin are China’s three most congested cities. Jinan traffic, for example, only has an average speed of 21.12 km/h during rush hour. With increased commute times and greenhouse gas emissions, the external costs of traffic congestion are increasing. However, neither the provision of additional road infrastructure nor the development of new car technologies alone can overcome these challenges. Thus, in 2011, the Ministry of Transport (MoT) initiated the Transit Metropolis Programme. Its goal is to promote public transport in cities through better service, more complete infrastructures, efficient management and strong support from local governments. Within that framework, city governments and decision makers have become increasingly interested in how to establish accessible and affordable public transport services and how to create more livable cities. In support of these efforts, GIZ has…

How can big data technologies and New Energy Vehicles (NEVs) contribute to a cleaner and more intelligent urban mobility in China and worldwide? This question took center stage at the 9th COTA-World Bank China Transport Forum on 8 July 2018 in Beijing, hosted by Tsinghua University and jointly organized by the Chinese Overseas Transportation Association (COTA), World Bank and the World Resources Institute (WRI). This forum takes place every year at the annual COTA International Conference of Transportation Professionals (CICTP) and strives to underscore the largest challenges and prospects for China’s transport development. It offers a platform for knowledge-sharing and exchange on best practices among COTA members, government officials, researchers, practitioners and the private sector from China and abroad. The 2018 forum on “Clean and Intelligent Urban Mobility” shed light on the subject areas urban public transport infrastructure, emerging technologies as well as advanced mobility services. In the opening remarks,…

200 years ago, German inventor Philipp Moritz Fischer built the world’s first bicycle. Today, Germans own almost 74 million bikes and cover a distance of altogether nearly 25 billion kilometers or 300 kilometers per inhabitant and per year. It is particularly the improved image of cycling that has driven more and more people to use their bicycle. With a broader variety of models and the introduction of innovative materials and technologies, bicycles have been converted into lifestyle products. Even though statistics make it seem as if almost every German owns their own bike, bike-sharing has been playing an ever-increasing role in the cycling culture in Germany. Bike-sharing was first introduced in Munich around 2000 by NextBike and Call-a-Bike, a company of Deutsche Bahn. The service was co-financed by the city to promote eco-friendly and convenient urban transport. Little by little, more cities and providers entered the German market, including international…

The evolution of free-floating bike-sharing in China Authors: Sebastian Ibold, Dr. Christoph Nedopil Review: Sandra Retzer, Tina Huang, Florian Ibold Since the explosive growth of free-floating bike-sharing in China starting in 2016, it has been described as one of the country’s hottest industries. China’s official state-run press agency Xinhua called it one of the “four great new inventions” in modern times (the other three being e-commerce, high-speed rail and mobile-payment). The bike-sharing industry was praised for providing a healthy lifestyle and a key to achieve more sustainable urban transport systems, with the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution significantly. The expectations put on free-floating bike-sharing were no less than reviving the “kingdom of bicycles”. But instead of a smooth bike-ride, the bike sharing industry in China has experienced nothing short of a roller-coaster ride: From 2016 onwards, a growing number of start-ups entered the bike-sharing market, resulting…

Interview with Dr. Wu Yue. Dr. Wu Yue is the chief engineer of the intelligent transport division at the Shenzhen Urban Transport Planning Center (SUTPC). Dr. Wu Yue received his PhD from Tongji University in Shanghai in 1990. Before joining SUTPC 3 years ago, he had been working in Singapore as an intelligent transport engineer. GIZ:How would you describe your role and duties as chief engineer of SUTPC`s intelligence department? Dr. Wu: Generally, I am working as the technology director to guide the research directions of intelligent transport business (ITS), the adviser of important intelligent transport projects of the company, and also developing the partnership with cooperation in ITS supply chain. GIZ:You were working in Singapore in transport planning for more than a decade. What experiences from Singapore would you want to apply in Shenzhen? Dr. Wu: Singapore is an island of 4.8 million people with limited space. Sustainable transport…

There is justified admiration for the scope and speed of China´s construction of its public transportation infrastructure as a form of green urban transportation. In this short article, we want to shed light on the development and status of public rail network in Beijing and Shanghai by comparing their subway infrastructure to the urban public rail infrastructure of the two German cities Berlin and Munich. On first glance, Beijing and Shanghai have over the past years strongly outperformed the two German cities when considering the growth and length of the subway network (see Figure 1). However, as this short article shows: despite the rapid growth from just one subway line with just a bit more than 40 km in length in the 1990s in both Chinese cities to today`s combined 1200 km, there is still need for further development which both cities are working hard on. Short history of the…

Development of Electro Mobility in China The development and use of electric buses in China has risen significantly over the past 5 to 10 years, driven by national energy policies to diversify source of energies and to improve urban air quality. As an additional benefit, decision makers also see the opportunity to promote the domestic automotive industry. In the overall electro mobility development, China has become a global forerunner: it is home to the biggest number of pure electric, hybrid, and hydrogen fuel cells new energy vehicles (NEVs) in the world. The annual sales of NEVs has increased by an average of 86.5% from 2009 to 2017. In 2017 alone, 777,000 electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles were sold, topping the world for three consecutive years according to China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (CAAM). The number of recorded new energy vehicles in China is 1.8 million, accounting for over half of…

Accessibility and barrier free infrastructures and environments are important indicators for sustainable development. In particular in cities, people who experience disabilities, often face challenges and discrimination regarding the equal participation in using the urban public spaces or infrastructures. This counts especially for public transportation systems. It is often difficult for people with disabilities but also to the elderly to enter subways, railway stations or similar facilities, as these are often not equipped with corresponding facilities, such as elevators, ramps or blind and deaf-friendly signage. To ensure a barrier free development of transportation infrastructure, related facilities and travels, China published a guideline on improving transportation services for the elderly and the disabled. The guideline was jointly released by the MOT, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, the China Disabled Persons’ Federation and four other departments on January 12th, 2018. By this China sets up a guiding framework for the establishment…