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The transport sector in China needs to start outlining intermediate efforts to play its role in reaching the recently set long-term target: carbon neutrality by 2060 as announced by China’s President Xi Jinping on Tuesday, September 22, 2020 during his speech at the General Debate of the 75th session of the UN General Assembly. In particular, the transport sector plays a key role in achieving the ambitious target of decarbonization. The transport-related carbon emissions in China increased from 397 million tons in 2005 to 1.04 billion tons in 2018[1], accounting for about 10 percent of the country’s total emissions. Emission reduction, ambitious roadmaps and measures in transport are crucial to realizing the target of carbon neutrality, since transport is the only sector where carbon emissions will be most unlikely to peak around 2030. However, China in its Nationally Determined Contributions to the Paris Agreement pledged to have carbon emissions peak…

Policy Briefing by Sebastian Ibold, Xia Yun and Xiao Shuyue On 02 November 2020, the New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2021-2035) was published by the State Council Office of the People’s Republic of China. The New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2021-2035) is a strategic top-level policy guiding the development of a comprehensive and fully integrated New Energy Vehicle (NEV) and Intelligent Connected Vehicle (ICV) eco-system in China over the course of the next 15 years and is part of the comprehensive roadmap to develop China into a global automotive powerhouse. The plan follows the Energy Conservation and New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2012-2020)[1], which was issued by the State Council in 2012. The New Energy Vehicle Industry Development Plan (2021-2035) in eight chapters lays out the future trends and key fields for the NEV and ICV industry and market development in China, aiming to systematically: promote and…

With a share of about 28 percent of global CO2-emissions, China is the world’s biggest emitter. With a total of 1.04 billion tons of CO2 in 2018[1], the transport sector in China accounts for about 10 percent of the country’s carbon emissions. Even though freight and logistics vehicles account for only about eight percent of the country’s total vehicle fleet, they account for approximately 70 percent of transport-related CO2-emissions. This makes the freight transport and logistics sector an important key element of the country’s roadmap to decarbonise transport – as part of China’s plan to reach carbon neutrality by 2060 and peak carbon emissions around 2030 while making best efforts to peak earlier. Annual total CO2 emissions, by world region, Source: Carbon Dioxide Analysis Center (CDIAC), Global Carbon Project (GCP) In recent years, freight volume in China has been increasing on average by almost 15 percent annually. The total freight…

Power-to-X (PtX) also Power-to-Anything) is the general term for processes that convert electrical power into fuels (Power-to-Gas, Power-to-Liquid), raw materials for industry (Power-to-Chem) or other energy forms. To make PtX products, pure hydrogen is first obtained from the source products – power and water – by electrolysis. As the first PtX product, hydrogen is the basis for all other products. By adding CO2 or other carbon compounds, it is possible to produce further synthetic energy sources and chemical base materials such as methanol and kerosene. This process is only carbon neutral if the electricity is generated from renewable energy sources and the CO2 is removed from the atmosphere (Direct Air Capture) or if it is based on non-food crops. If this is the case, the PtX products are considered ‘green’. Key Findings Background China, with a total of 10.5 Gt of CO2 in 2018, is the world’s biggest emitter of…

Freight transport in China accounts for about 700Mt of CO2 emissions. This is about 67 percent of the country’s total transport-related CO2 emissions, with road freight transport accounting for the highest share. In comparison, Germany’s total CO2 emissions in 2019 were about 811Mt. In its bid to make freight transport more efficient and climate-friendly, the promotion of Intermodal Transport has high priority for the Chinese Ministry of Transport (MoT). Intermodal Transport is defined as goods transportation that employs more than one mode of transport for a single assignment, with the cargo being carried in a single intermodal loading unit from origin to destination throughout the entire journey. The Sino-German Cooperation on Low Carbon Transport (CLCT), implemented on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) by GIZ, supports MoT in the promotion of Intermodal Transport in China. On December 9 and 10, 2019,…

Authors: Sebastian Ibold/GIZ, Nikola Medimorec/SLOCAT, Armin Wagner/GIZ [1]Contributions: Linus Platzer/GIZ, Victor Valente/GIZ Update: 20.3.2020 // Reflections on cycling, public space and introduction of proposed conceptual framework for transport sector response to COVID-19 based on Avoid-Shift-Improve Approach Update 27.3.2020 // Reflections on sequencing and prioritization of measures, impressions from Brazil, additional information / anecdotal evidence on (potential) impact Update 30.3.2020 // Reflections on COVID-19 impact on shared mobility Contents BackgroundCOVID-19 and Public TransportNeed for Coordinated ResponseNeed for Protection of Staff, Infrastructure and PassengersRecommendations to Protect Staff and InfrastructureRecommendations to Protect PassengersNeed for Coordinated Demand ManagementCOVID-19 and Shared-MobilityProposed Conceptual Framework for Transport Sector – Response to COVID-19 Based on Avoid-Shift-Improve ApproachFurther observations – Impacts of COVID-19SummaryQuestions for Further DiscussionAnnex: In-Depth Country Observation Brazil Background On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. As of March 26, about 2.6 billion people (including 1.3 billion in India…

All over the world, many cities are facing increasing levels of traffic congestion, road safety issues, as well as carbon and air pollutant emissions. In particular, the better integration of transport and urban planning is seen as a key to mitigate these effects and to create more livable cities. To promote smart and integrated urban mobility planning, the European Commission, in 2013, published the “Guidelines on Developing and Implementing A Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan”. Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans, also known as SUMP, aim at satisfying the mobility needs of people and businesses while improving the quality of life. The SUMP concept has been successfully applied in various countries around the world. In order to adapt to the current mobility trends, such as vehicle automation, vehicle electrification, shared mobility and their implications in the public transport systems, the SUMP guidelines were recently updated in their second edition, which you can find…

by Sebastian Ibold and Jingzhu Li Contents Background Long-Term Strategic Development of China’s Transport Sector in Two Phases Nine Key Tasks to Implement the Outline for Building China’s Strength in TransportSummary Background On September 19th, 2019, the Outline for Building China’s Strength in Transport was released. The document was approved by the Communist Party of China Central Committee (CPCCC) and the State Council and describes the future vision and roadmap of China’s transport sector with a clear message: China wants to become a global transport superpower by 2050. The original text of the policy can be found here. The first mention to the Outline for Building China’s Strength in Transport dates back to January 18th, 2017, when the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE) held a kick-off meeting on “strategic research on China’s strength in transportation”. The policy was since then elaborated by a drafting group headed by Vice Premier Liu…

According to Katie Melua, there are nine-million bicycles in Beijing – and the city is working on bringing bicycles back to the roads by making cycling more safe and thus convenient. But Beijing is also exploring new ways to make cycling more attractive. In May 2019, the city’s first “bicycle highway” was opened to the public. The 6.5 km long partially elevated cycling-only road, which was designed by the Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport (BMCT), is connecting Huilongguan and the Zhongguancun High-Tech Area in Northern Beijing, offering safe, convenient and fast traveling to more than 8,000 commuters daily. Beijing’s First Bicycle Highway *If problems with playing the video occur, this may be due to country-specific internet restrictions. Back to the Kingdom of Bicyle Not so long ago, bikes were ubiquitous in China. As the dominating form of transportation, for the wealthy and working classes alike, the country had more than…

The evolution of free-floating bike-sharing in China Authors: Sebastian Ibold, Dr. Christoph Nedopil Review: Sandra Retzer, Tina Huang, Florian Ibold Since the explosive growth of free-floating bike-sharing in China starting in 2016, it has been described as one of the country’s hottest industries. China’s official state-run press agency Xinhua called it one of the “four great new inventions” in modern times (the other three being e-commerce, high-speed rail and mobile-payment). The bike-sharing industry was praised for providing a healthy lifestyle and a key to achieve more sustainable urban transport systems, with the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution significantly. The expectations put on free-floating bike-sharing were no less than reviving the “kingdom of bicycles”. But instead of a smooth bike-ride, the bike sharing industry in China has experienced nothing short of a roller-coaster ride: From 2016 onwards, a growing number of start-ups entered the bike-sharing market, resulting…