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Over the past twenty years, the Chinese transport sector has undergone a monumental transformation. Today, China is the world’s largest car market, has the planet’s largest High-Speed Rail (HSR) system, is the world’s second largest civil aviation market and houses seven of the planet’s ten largest container ports. An astounding achievement considering the country had under 20,000 registered private cars in 1985 and not a single HSR line until 2008. Simply phrased, China has ‘put the pedal to the metal’. However, China’s rise came along with alarming environmental and climate change issues as transport emissions have increased more than tenfold since 1980. Today, China is not only the world’s single largest emitter of greenhouse gasses, but its transport sector is the country’s third largest contributor. Furthermore, China is plagued by notorious air pollution that provokes alarming health concerns amongst its 1.4 billion strong population. With incomes continuing to grow among…

Freight ship enters harbour Within the framework of the project “Mobility and Fuels Strategy (MFS) as a Contribution to the Transport Transition in China – Pilot in the Jing-Jin-Ji Region”, Mr. Ralf Fiedler from the Fraunhofer Center for Maritime Logistics and Services (CML) travelled to China from 21 to 24 August 2018. The goal of his visit was to work with the Tianjin Research Institute for Water Transport Engineering (TIWTE) under the Chinese Ministry of Transport (MOT) on identifying suitable project topics for the ongoing Chinese-German MFS cooperation in the field of green port development. In the following months, TIWTE, Fraunhofer CML and GIZ in China will carry out three joint studies that are dealing with the analysis and evaluation of energy efficiency in automatic container terminals, the optimization and promotion policies of shore-to-ship power supply systems as well as concepts for conversion towards green ports. In order to further…

In 2017, 29 million new vehicles were sold in China – more than in the United States, Japan and India combined. This figure is expected to increase to at least 37 million by 2025, assuming a 3% annual growth rate. Given this vast market potential, the same question comes up time and again within the global automotive industry: What proportion of these vehicles will be so-called Intelligent and Connected Vehicles (ICVs)? China’s determination to become the world’s leading automotive nation is matched by their desire to shape the future of mobility. Together with the rapid increase in New Energy Vehicles (NEVs), the development of its ICV industry lies at the heart of this ambition. After some initial hesitation, China has undertaken numerous steps to accelerate the development of ICVs in 2018. Following recent legislative changes, the adoption of national strategies, as well as improvements in its connectivity-based technologies, it is…

Developments in the field of New Energy Vehicles (NEVs) in China have exceeded all expectations. The Middle Kingdom is by far the largest market for NEVs, with 50 % of global passenger cars being sold here (International Energy Agency (IEA), 2018). The numbers for NEVs are ever increasing: in the first half of 2018, NEV sales already reached 412,000, up from 195,000 vehicles sold in the first half of the previous year (Center for Automotive Management (CAM), 2018). Overall, China has taken a pioneering role in the e-mobility sector, with numerous Chinese cities on their way to having a fully electrified bus fleet by 2020, if not sooner. China’ s quick progress in the electro-mobility field is as much a result of industrial policy considerations as environmental concerns. A comprehensive electro-mobility ecosystem is a foundational aspect of what China regards as a strategic industry in the coming decades, supported by…

As a major global economic driving force, the transport sector –and in particular the automotive sector– has provided employment and shaped technological progress over the course of a century. This is true for Germany as much as it is for China. Daunting climate and environmental concerns have cast a large shadow on this development. The tangible negative impacts of transport such as air pollution, accidents, noise and congestion are more than a nuisance to residents living, working or visiting in Chinas’ megacities, along Chinas’ coastlines and waterways. A less perceptible, yet significant impact is the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from internal combustion engines burning fossil fuels. The associated negative social, environmental and climatic impacts pose a dilemma for policy makers worldwide. Energy security, climate protection and air quality have to be taken into account as much as economic efficiency, growth and acceptance. Accordingly, the purpose of practical transport policy…

Due to the rapid economic development in recent years, China is experiencing substantial growth in vehicle population and motorisation, which has lead to a strong increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution. In order to reduce emissions and meet the carbon emission targets, city governments and decision makers are increasingly interested in understanding the effectiveness of transportation measures. To control and facilitate GHG emissions and pollutants in any form, quantifying the emissions being released is a fundamental requirement. This, in turn, demands data on fleet composition, travel activities, and emission factors. In contrast to Europe and the United States, publicly accessible emission factor databases, particularly for the quantification of traffic-related GHG emissions, are not available in China. There is also no publicly released official tool or inventory model for GHG emissions accounting for mobile sources at the national or regional level. Therefore GIZ initiated – as one task…

“Air quality in German cities is as high as the air quality in rural areas 20 years ago. We reduced carbon monoxide (CO) by 90 per cent, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by 90 per cent, benzene by more than 95 per cent, nitrogen oxides by 90 per cent and particulate matter by 70 per cent. This means we achieved a massive reduction of air pollution in Germany.” says Dr.-Ing. Axel Friedrich (Technical Chemist from the Technical University of Berlin), who contributed an interview to the publication “Clean Air – Made in Germany”. Published by the German Partnership for Sustainable Mobility (GPSM) “Clean Air – Made in Germany” informs about stakeholders, legal initiatives and measures which contribute to the high level of air quality in Germany. As traffic is a main contributor to air pollution, special emphasis is given to what can be done to reduce pollutant emissions from the transport…

As experience in Europe and North America shows, many nations adopted carsharing as part of an overall strategy to mitigate the negative impacts of increasing private car ownership and individual transport volume in densely populated urban areas. Professionally organised carsharing services separate car use from vehicle ownership and complement the existing network of public and non-motorised transport modes by offering on-demand, self-service, short-term and pay-per-use access to automobiles. Based on these characteristics, carsharing unleashes the potential to reform automobile usage and to significantly contribute to a shift of mobility patterns towards more efficient and sustainable eco-modes – A change that appears to be a necessity to reduce air pollution and space consumption in Chinese megacities. While the impact of carsharing on urban transport and environment is gaining growing importance on an international scale, carsharing systems in China are still in an initial phase. Since comprehensive large-scale carsharing systems could contribute…

Since 2010, the Sustainable Transport team cooperates with Chinese institutions to support their quest for the sustainable, low carbon development of the transport sector on behalf of the German government. In their recent collaboration GIZ and its partners developed the China Road Transport Emission Model (HBEFA China) based on the European Handbook of Emission Factors (HBEFA), which enables Chinese transport and city planners to estimate road transport related greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants. Learn more from our newly published leaflet: “China Road Transport Emission Model, 14.11.2014, EN” “China Road Transport Emission Model, 14.11.2014, CN”